Online Or Onsite Clinical Pathology Courses


Courses For Birds

Module 1 will provide the essentials to obtain a quality blood sample for diagnostic evaluation.
  • Veinapuncture site, veinapuncture techniques, blood smear preparation and choice of anti-coagulants will be addressed and discussed for maximizing the quality of the blood sample
  • Recommended hematologic stains and hematologic techniques to maximize diagnostic interpretation
  • Various methods of erythrocyte concentration and leukocyte determinations are evaluated for accuracy and efficiency
  • Interpretation of the hemogram with reference to species variation and medical challenges of the avian patient
Introduction To Avian Hematology
Module 2 concentrates on preservation of blood cell morphology, how to interpret artifacts of the

African Grey Heterophil & Eosinophil

red blood cells or white blood cells and species variation of cell identification
  • Recognizing artifacts of the peripheral blood affecting the red and white blood cells. Identifying how these artifacts occur
  • Identification and characterization of the red blood cell, polychromatic cell and immature red blood cell

    Monocyte vs lymphocytes

  • Identification and characterization of the white blood cells
  • Identification and characterization of the thrombocytes
  • Recognizing species variation of the above cell lines
Module 3 provides classification and etiologies of avian anemia, how

Degenerative reticulocytes in response to anemia, suggesting bone marrow toxicity.the avian patient responds to

anemia and the effects of anemia on red blood cell morphology. In addition, the avian protein fractions of the blood will be addressed and how they respond to disease
  • Evaluating the peripheral blood of the anemic patient
  • Classifying the anemia
  • Evaluating red blood cell morphology
  • Interpretation of the avian protein fractions; normal and abnormal

Response to anemia with lead toxicity

Module 4 provides clarification of the various avian blood parasites, how they present in the


peripheral blood and interpretation for prognostic value
  • In-depth study of avian blood parasites
  • Identification and classification
  • Changes in the avian hemogram with blood parasite infections
  • Recommendations for parasite treatment and re-evaluation of the hemogram
This module will provide the essentials to obtain a quality blood sample for diagnostic evaluation.

Plasmodium (avian malaria) 

Module 5 provides in depth study of the leukocyte response to disease. Evaluation of leukocyte morphologic changes is imperative as a diagnostic and prognostic tool.

Bacterial Septicemia (monocytes with intracellular bacteria)

Leukocyte morphological changes in response to
  • Chronic disease
  • Bacterial infections
  • Viral infections
  • Sepsis
  • Toxicities
Determining avian neoplastic disorders versus the above changes in response to disease

Changes in the gyrfalcon lymphocytes with West Nile Virus Infection.

Module 6 combines all the information of the previous 5 modules and incorporates this information into concise interpretation of the hemogram and how to apply this information to the ill patient.
    • How to formulate the differential diagnosis based on the results of the history and hemogram
    • Therapy protocol recommendations based on history and hemogram results
    • Prognostic determination
    • Presentation of four avian internal medicine clinical cases

Dedicated to providing the highest quality of education in hematology and clinical pathology for avian and reptiles.

Click here to schedule a consultation with Dr Joseph


Victoria Joseph DVM, Dip. ABVP-Avian Director

 Posted by at 5:41 pm